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GALERIE ART PREMIER AFRICAIN GALERIE ART PRIMITIF AFRICAIN AFRICAN ART GALLERY

Art Gallery the Eye and the Hand
Result of the research Result of the research : 'paintings'

De l’africanisme aux études africaines Textes et « humanités » Alain Ricard Tout discours sur l'Afrique, et en particulier l'Afrique noire, ne peut il relever que de la passion, voire de lacompassion ? N’y a t-il que les fous d’Afrique – titre d’un livre récent – pour s’intéresser à elle ? Quelles formes de raison peut-il convoquer ?La première qui se présenta fut géographique. Sorte de page blanche de notre humanité jusqu'au XIXe siècle, l'Afrique a été inscrite avec nos routes, nos cartes, nos frontières ; aujourd'hui, les images satellitaires ne nous en laisentrien ignorer. Nous savons au mètre près ce qui se passe à Kisangani en guerre, là où Stanley donna à des chutes son nom : il avait compris que cette courbe du fleuve Congo était le centre du continent, il pensait en géographe et en stratège... Cette Afrique des images reste face à nous, extérieure : ne relève-t-elle pas aussi d'autres formes de raison plus intérieures, voire existentielles ? Quel immense murmure monte de la forêt ? Que dit-il ? Ces Africains ne sont-ils qued'empruntés francophones ou de pompeux anglophones ? Des bégayeurs maladroits ou des volubiles irresponsables ?L'inscription géographique, qui en reste à l'image, est trop facilement la proie de la marchandise. Aujourd'hui il nous faut le son, le discours. Des langues en expansion composent d'autres circulations que nous ne capterons pas avec nos satellites. Il nous faut passer de l'œil à l'oreille, du regard à l'écoute... Les blancs des cartes Les sciences humaines redécouvrent l’afrique, titrait un journal du soir après un colloque tenu à Nantes – « Les sciences de l’homme

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Image Paul Klee
Paul Klee

Born     18 December 1879
Münchenbuchsee bei Bern, Switzerland
Died     29 June 1940 (aged 60)
Muralto, Switzerland
Nationality     German/Swiss
Training     Academy of Fine Arts, Munich
Works     more than 10,000 paintings, drawings, and etchings, including The Twittering Machine (1922), Fish Magic (1925), Viaducts Break Ranks (1937).

Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss painter of German nationality. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. He was, as well, a student of orientalism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and eventually mastered color theory, and wrote extensively about it. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes child-like perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality. He and his friend, the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the German Bauhaus school of art and architecture.

Early life and training
“     First of all, the art of living; then as my
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Georges Braque

Georges Braque (13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art movement known as cubism.

Youth

Georges Braque was born in Argenteuil, Val-d'Oise. He grew up in Le Havre and trained to be a house painter and decorator, as his father and grandfather were, but he also studied painting in the evenings at the École des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre from about 1897 to 1899. He apprenticed in Paris under a decorator and was awarded his certificate in 1902. The following year, he attended the Académie Humbert, also in Paris, and painted there until 1904. It was here that he met Marie Laurencin and Francis Picabia.

Fauvism

His earliest works were impressionistic, but, after seeing the work exhibited by the Fauves in 1905, Braque adopted a Fauvist style. The Fauves, a group that included Henri Matisse and André Derain among others, used brilliant colors and loose structures of forms to capture the most intense emotional response. Braque worked most closely with the artists Raoul Dufy and Othon Friesz, who shared Braque's hometown of Le Havre, to develop a somewhat more subdued Fauvist style. In 1906, Braque traveled with Friesz to L'Estaque, to Antwerp, and home to Le Havre to paint.

In May 1907, he
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Jackson Pollock

Photographer Hans Namuth extensively documented Pollock's unique painting techniques.
Birth name     Paul Jackson Pollock
Born     January 28, 1912(1912-01-28)
Cody, Wyoming
Died     August 11, 1956 (aged 44)
Springs, New York
Nationality     American
Field     Painter
Training     Art Students League of New York
Movement     Abstract expressionism
Patrons     Peggy Guggenheim

Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956) was an influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. In October 1945, he married the artist Lee Krasner.  During his lifetime, Pollock enjoyed considerable fame and notoriety. He was regarded as a mostly reclusive artist, but had a volatile personality and struggled with alcoholism all of his life. He died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-related, single-car crash. In December 1956, he was given a memorial
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Image Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani

Birth name     Amedeo Modigliani
Born     12 July 1884(1884-07-12)
Livorno, Tuscany
Died     24 January 1920 (aged 35)
Paris, France
Nationality     Italian
Field     Painting
Training     Accademia di Belle Arti, Istituto di Belle Arti
Works     Madame Pompadour
Jeanne Hébuterne in Red Shawl

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 – January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist of Jewish heritage, practising both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. Modigliani was born in Livorno (historically referred to in English as Leghorn), in center-western region Tuscany in Italy and began his artistic studies in Italy before moving to Paris in 1906. Influenced by the artists in his circle of friends and associates, by a range of genres and art movements, and by primitive art, Modigliani's œuvre was nonetheless unique and idiosyncratic. He died in Paris of tubercular meningitis, exacerbated by poverty, overworking, and an
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Maurice de Vlaminck

Maurice de Vlaminck. The River Seine at Chatou, 1906
Born     4 April 1876(1876-04-04)
Paris, France
Died     11 October 1958 (aged 82)
Nationality     French
Field     Painting

Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French painter. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, a group of modern artists who from 1904 to 1908 were united in their use of intense color.


Maurice de Vlaminck was born in Paris to a family of musicians. His father taught him to play the violin.He began painting in his late teens. In 1893, he studied with a painter named Henri Rigalon on the Ile de Chatou. In 1894 he married Suzanne Berly. The turning point in his life was a chance meeting on the train to Paris towards the end of his stint in the army. Vlaminck, then 23, met an aspiring artist, André Derain, with whom he struck up a life-long friendship. When Vlaminck completed his army service in 1900, the two rented a studio together for a year before Derain left to do his own military service. In 1902 and 1903 he wrote several mildly pornographic novels illustrated by Derain.He
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Henri Matisse

Photo of Henri Matisse by Carl Van Vechten, 1933.
Birth name     Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse
Born     31 December 1869 (1869-12-31)
Le Cateau-Cambrésis, Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Died     3 November 1954 (1954-11-04) (aged 84)
Nice, France
Nationality     French
Field     painting, printmaking, sculpture, drawing, collage
Training     Académie Julian, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Gustave Moreau
Movement     Fauvism, Modernism
Works     Woman with a Hat (Madame Matisse), 1905

in museums:

    * Museum of Modern Art

Patrons     Gertrude Stein, Etta Cone, Claribel Cone, Michael and Sarah Stein, Albert C.
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Arman

Armand Pierre Arman

Birth name     Armand Pierre Fernandez
Born     November 17, 1928(1928-11-17)
Nice, France
Died     October 22, 2005 (aged 76)
New York City
Nationality     French
Field     Sculpture, Painting, Printmaking
Movement     Nouveau Réalisme
Influenced by     Kurt Schwitters, Vincent van Gogh, Surrealism, Dada, Serge Poliakoff, Nicolas de Stael

Arman (November 17, 1928 – October 22, 2005) was a French-born American artist.Born Armand Pierre Fernandez in Nice, France, Arman is a painter who moved from using the objects as paintbrushes ("allures d'objet") to using them as the painting itself. He is best known for his "accumulations" and destruction/recomposition of objects.

Biography

Arman's father, Antonio Fernandez,
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Image André Breton
André Breton

André Breton (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the principal founder of Surrealism. His writings include the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as "pure psychic automatism".

Biography

Born to a family of modest means in Tinchebray (Orne) in Normandy, he studied medicine and psychiatry. During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes, where he met the spiritual son of Alfred Jarry, Jacques Vaché, whose anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition influenced Breton considerably. Vaché committed suicide at age 24 and his war-time letters to Breton and others were published in a volume entitled Lettres de guerre (1919), for which Breton wrote four introductory essays.

From Dada to Surrealism

In 1919 Breton founded the review Littérature with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault. He also connected with Dadaist Tristan Tzara. In 1924 he was instrumental to the founding of the Bureau of Surrealist Research.

In The Magnetic Fields (Les Champs Magnétiques), a collaboration with Soupault, he put the principle of automatic writing into practice. He published the Surrealist Manifesto in 1924, and was editor of La
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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso 1962
Birth name     Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso
Born     25 October 1881(1881-10-25)
Málaga, Spain
Died     8 April 1973 (aged 91)
Mougins, France
Nationality     Spanish
Field     Painting, Drawing, Sculpture, Printmaking, Ceramics
Training     Jose Ruíz (father), Academy of Arts, Madrid
Movement     Cubism
Works     Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)
Guernica (1937) The Weeping Woman (1937)

Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, draughtsman, and sculptor. Commonly known simply as Picasso, he is one of the most
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Image André Derain and the fauvisme movement
André Derain

Born     10 June 1880(1880-06-10)
Chatou, Yvelines,
Île-de-France
Died     8 September 1954 (aged 74)
Garches, Hauts-de-Seine, Île-de-France

André Derain (10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French painter and co-founder of Fauvism with Henri Matisse.

Biography

Derain was born in 1880 in Chatou, Yvelines, Île-de-France, just outside Paris. In 1898, while studying to be an engineer at the Académie Camillo, he attended painting classes under Eugène Carrière, and there met Matisse. In 1900, he met and shared a studio with Maurice de Vlaminck and began to paint his first landscapes. His studies were interrupted from 1901 to 1904 when he was conscripted into the French army. Following his release from service, Matisse persuaded Derain's parents to allow him to abandon his engineering career and devote himself solely to painting; subsequently Derain attended the Académie Julian.

Derain and Matisse worked together through the summer of 1905 in the Mediterranean village of Collioure and later that year displayed their highly
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THE PAINTINGS OF CHURCH ABBA ANTONIOS


The paintings on canvas of Abba Antonios church in Gondar in Ethiopia were collected by Marcel Griaule and his team at the Dakar-Djibouti mission in 1932. They probably date from the late eighteenth century and measure (for the pieces installed at the Musée du Quai Branly) about 2.3 meters high. All bear the inventory numbers from 31.74.3584 to 31.74.3630.

DESCRIPTION

The paintings in the church are made Abba Antonios egg on a canvas backing. They are mainly figures of saints, or episodes of Christian history (Old and New Testament apocryphal writings), arranged in superimposed registers.
At the Musée du Quai Branly, the totality of what has been harvested (60 sq.m.) is not exposed. In the room devoted to Ethiopian paintings, on the right shows a St. George, followed by a representation of God overcoming the Covenant of Grace and twelve priests of Heaven, from the west wall of the church. Opposite the entrance, three holy knights recognizable opponents it lands (small naked figures for St. Theodore, a centaur, a lion's body and tail shaped double snake for St. Claude, the emperor Julian the apostolate who tried to restore paganism to holy Mercury) overcome the images of the first Christian martyrs who have proclaimed the Gospel, namely John the Baptist, St. Paul, St. Peter and St. Etienne. Finally on the left wall you can see four of the kings of the Old Testament in the upper register (David, Solomon, Hezekiah and Josiah) and a couple of

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Image Paul Guillaume
From humble beginnings, Paul Guillaume (1891–1934) rose to become one of the leading cultural players and art dealer-collectors of Paris in the early twentieth century. Guillaume died at the age of forty-two, by which time he had amassed an outstanding private collection of works by leading modernists. Unlike many art collectors of the time, Guillaume did not come from a wealthy and cultivated background, nor was he only interested in simply supplying works of art for customer demand like other art dealers. He also actively promoted certain aspects of the artistic and cultural life of Paris, providing moral and material support to artists, and interpreting the art of his time for his contemporaries. This approach, while not uncommon today, was innovative at the time and had previously been attempted by only a few courageous dealer-collectors in Paris, such as Paul Durand-Ruel and Ambroise Vollard. Guillaume was celebrated by the artists whom he supported; for instance in Modigliani's portrait the words Novo Pilota, or ‘new helmsman’, identify the sitter as being at the forefront of modern art.

Guillaume's premature death prevented his dream – of transforming his private collection to a museum of modern art – from being realised. After his death Domenica, his widow and heir, remarried and modified the existing collection, selling some of the more extreme avant-garde works (and later his collection of African art and modern sculpture) and acquiring works of a more conservative character. Domenica's concern to promote harmony among the works in the Guillaume collection made her edited version of the collection all the more typically a capsule of Parisian taste in the 1920s. Before he died, Paul Guillaume had resolved to give his collection to the Louvre. Domenica, a lover of Impressionist art (Monet's
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Art

Art

Art is the process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way that appeals to the senses or emotions. It encompasses a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression, including music and literature. The meaning of art is explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics.

The definition and evaluation of art has become especially problematic since the early 20th century. Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches: the Realist, whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human view; the Objectivist, whereby it is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the Relativist position, whereby it is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of different humans. An object may be characterized by the intentions, or lack thereof, of its creator, regardless of its apparent purpose. A cup, which ostensibly can be used as a container, may be considered art if intended solely as an ornament, while a painting may be deemed craft if mass-produced.

Traditionally, the term art was used to refer to any skill or mastery. This conception changed during the Romantic period, when art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science". Generally, art is made with the intention of stimulating thoughts and emotions.

The nature of art has been described by Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". It has been defined
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African traditional masks

There are an enormous variety of masks used in Africa. In West Africa, masks are used in masquerades that form part of religious ceremonies enacted to contact with spirits and ancestors.

The Yoruba, Igbo and Edo cultures, including Egungun Masquerades and Northern Edo Masquerades. The masks are usually carved with an extraordinary skill and variety by artists who will usually have received their training as an apprentice to a master carver - frequently it is a tradition that has been passed down within a family through many generations. Such an artist holds a respected position in tribal society because of the work that he/she creates, embodying not only complex craft techniques but also spiritual/social and symbolic knowledge. African masks are also used in the Mas or Masquerade of the Caribbean Carnival.

African masks are made from different materials: wood, bronze, brass, copper, ivory, terra cotta and glazed pottery, raffia and textiles. Some African masks are colourful. Many African masks represent animals. Some African tribes believe that the animal masks can help them communicate with the spirits who live in forests or open savannas. People of Burkina Faso known as the Bwa and Nuna call to the spirit to stop destruction. The Dogon of Mali have complex religions that also have animal masks. Their beliefs are in three main cults - the Awa, cult of the dead, Bini, cult of communication with spirits and Lebe, cult of earth and nature. These three main cults nevertheless use seventy-eight different types of masks. Most of the ceremonies of the Dogon culture are secret, although the antelope dance is shown to non-Dogons. The antelope masks are rough rectangular boxes with several horns coming out of the top. The Dogons are expert agriculturists and the antelope symbolizes a hard working farmer.

Another culture that has a very rich agricultural tradition is the
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Guillaume Apollinaire

Born     26 August 1880(1880-08-26)
Rome, Italy1
Died     9 November 1918 (aged 38)
Paris, France

Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki, known as Guillaume Apollinaire  Rome, August 26, 1880 – November 9, 1918, Paris) was a French poet, writer and art critic born in Italy to a Polish mother.

Among the foremost poets of the early 20th century, he is credited with coining the word "surrealism" and writing one of the earliest works described as surrealist, the play Les Mamelles de Tirésias (1917, used as the basis for a 1947 opera).

Two years after being wounded in World War I, he died at age 38, a victim of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic.

Life

Born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki and raised speaking French, among other languages, he emigrated to France and adopted the name Guillaume Apollinaire. His mother, born Angelica Kostrowicka, was a Polish noblewoman born near Navahrudak (now in Belarus). Apollinaire's father is unknown but may have been Francesco Flugi d'Aspermont, a Swiss Italian aristocrat
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Edvard Munch

Born     12 December 1863(1863-12-12)
Ådalsbruk in Løten, Norway
Died     23 January 1944 (aged 80)
Oslo, Norway
Nationality     Norwegian

Edvard Munch (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈmuŋk], 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian Symbolist painter, printmaker and an important forerunner of expressionistic art. His best-known composition, The Scream, is part of a series The Frieze of Life, in which Munch explored the themes of life, love, fear, death, and melancholy.

Biography

Youth

Edvard Munch was born in a rustic farmhouse in the village of Ådalsbruk in Løten, Norway to Christian Munch, the son of a prominent priest. Christian was a doctor and medical officer who married Laura Cathrine Bjølstad, a woman half his age, in 1861. Edvard had an older sister, Johanne Sophie (born 1862), and three younger siblings: Peter Andreas (born 1865), Laura Cathrine (born 1867), and Inger Marie (born 1868). Both Sophie and Edvard appear to have inherited their artistic talent from their mother. Edvard Munch was related to painter Jacob
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Image Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti (October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman, and printmaker.


Biography

Early life

Alberto Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, now part of the Swiss municipality of Stampa, near the Italian border. His father, Giovanni Giacometti, was a painter. Alberto attended the School of Fine Arts in Geneva. In 1922 he moved to Paris to study under the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, an associate of Auguste Rodin. It was there that Giacometti experimented with cubism and surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading surrealist sculptors. Among his associates were Joan Miró, Max Ernst, Pablo Picasso and Balthus.

Between 1936 and 1940, Giacometti concentrated his sculpting on the human head, focusing on the model's gaze, followed by a unique artistic phase in which his statues became stretched out; their limbs elongated. Obsessed with creating his sculptures exactly as he envisioned through his unique view of reality, he often carved until they were as thin as nails and reduced to the size of a pack of cigarettes, much to his consternation. A friend of his once said that if Giacometti decided to sculpt you, "he would make your head look like the blade of a knife." After his marriage his tiny sculptures became larger, but the larger they grew, the thinner they became. Giacometti said that the final result
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Max Ernst

Born     April 2, 1891(1891-04-02)
Brühl, Germany
Died     April 1, 1976 (aged 84)
Paris, France
Nationality     German

Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst is considered to be one of the primary pioneers of the Dada movement and Surrealism.

Early life

Ernst was born in Brühl, Germany, near Cologne. In 1909, he enrolled in the University at Bonn to study philosophy but soon abandoned the courses. He began painting that year, but never received any formal artistic training. During World War I he served in the German army, which was a momentous interruption in his career as an artist. He stated in his autobiography, "Max Ernst died the 1st of August, 1914."

[edit] Dada and Surrealism
Max Ernst, Ubu Imperator, (1923), Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France

After the war, filled with new
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